82nd Illinois Infantry


44th Illinois Infantry Letters

The following fifteen letters from soldiers in the 44th Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment were translated by Joseph R. Reinhart.The letters were published in German and can be found in microfilm copies of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung at the Newberry Library in Chicago, Illinois.

A summary of the 44th Illinois service follows the letters.

Illinois Staats-Zeitung

January 23, 1862

[Translated by Joseph R. Reinhart]

 

[44th Illinois]

 

Camp by Rolla, [Mo.]

Jan. 18. [1862]

I have not written to you up to now because I have learned to gauge the American conditions and, therefore, not to embrace overly optimistic expectations as I went into the field. You know that I entered the army with the warmest patriotism. Only since then I have seen the deplorable hustle and bustle in Missouri. I am entirely cooled down now and wish nothing more ardently than to return to my former civilian employment. I would have to be very much in error if, in the above, I were not expressing the feelings of every German patriot who is under the command of Gen. Sigel in the Missouri army.

You have had another correspondent up to now to inform you about the actions of the 44th Reg. Illinois Vol. (earlier North Western Rifle Regiment) under the command of C. Knoblesdorff; I will therefore not repeat the past but rather will inform you of our current circumstances. Since then, Sigel’s division, to which Colonel Knobelsdorff belongs, returned to Rolla from Springfield. We have been here without any purpose or usefulness for two months. You must not believe however that we have quarters here more comfortable than in Chicago! I should not invoke this because you know only too well that our American generals actually understand nothing better than to vex (chafe) the troops entrusted to them.

Permit me at least to give you a description of our cheerless camp. The 44th Ill. Reg. V., as generally all troops under General Sigel’s command, has lived here for two months in tents without protection against cold and rain. Thanks to the action of Colonel Knobelsdorff we received sheet iron stoves about two weeks ago for each of the soldiers’ tents. Our camp became somewhat improved through this. However, most of the German regiments under Sigel have not only poor tents but also no stoves and suffer most terribly. Not that General Sigel has somewhat failed to improve the camps of his soldiers. In the past he has untiringly made efforts to obtain permission from General Halleck to build winter quarters here or at least to build log cabins to protect his men from the effects of the fast changing and unhealthy weather. As I have learned, all his ideas have been tacitly rejected; they have even refused to provide him with better tents and stoves for his soldiers, or at least left his requisitions pending.

     You may imagine how painful it is for a man who cares in such a fatherly, humane fashion for his soldiers as does General Sigel, to see his German regiments suffering, and if Sigel did not have command over these men, they would have long since eluded this terrible treatment.          

Our German soldiers have fared extraordinarily well in spite of this neglect. There are few sick and still fewer deaths; however, among the Americans, diseases of all kinds prevail in horrifying ways and the Grim Reaper gathers his harvest with grinning Shadenfreude. The reason the German soldier tolerates the campaign better is solely because he prepares his food better and maintains the cleanliness of his body, while the American prefers to eat half raw meat, Pie, apples, warm cakes and candy and does not listen to the warnings of his German comrades. As a result of this the 25th and 35th Reg. Ill. V., which of course belongs to Sigel’s Division, are partly broken up due to illnesses, and ours (the 44th Reg. Ill. V.) has suffered in a terrible way.

            I have it from reliable sources that 169 men from the 44th Regiment lay sick in our camp and 64 are located in hospitals in Rolla and St. Louis. Is this not an appalling situation and costs generals, who cause and tolerate it, yes, as it seems, deliberately promote it, the confidence of the people? Yes it is time that this massive and purposeless human slaughter be brought to an end and the government call to account this unfit, intriguing general, and transfer the leadership of the army troops to someone who knows how to protect human worth and prove their competence as leaders through their actions. Do not be surprised about my hardness. I assure you that on the inside my heart bleeds and tears well up in my eyes when I consider how hundreds of the best sons of the country are being murdered without purpose. Yes! While I am writing this I hear the funeral march and rifle fire; the last salute that indicates that three of our soldiers die every day. Sorrow and discontent show on the brow of each of our soldiers and only through the endeavors of our German officers and our untiring colonel can American soldiers break loose from their apathy and despondency from time to time.

            Since our regiment left Chicago, we have had 45 deaths and the majority of these occured in the camp near Rolla. Six of the bloodiest battles would not have required so much human sacrifice, as this open, man-eating tomb at Rolla. As you know our regiment behaved excellently on the march to Springfield and the march back to Rolla and acquired a good name. Colonel Knobelsdorff has proven to be a prudent, experienced officer, and it is regrettable that so many of our good men lay uselessly in their graves. Other regiments camping near Rolla have suffered even more, but they seek to hide it, so that the generals will not be disturbed in their sweet serenity.  You ask, have you no hospitals? No doctors?—No, we have no hospitals! Our sick lie on straw in hospital tents or in their comrades’ tents. You could easily imagine that a sick person exposed to cold and wetness in this way cannot recover; our people therefore firmly assume that a sick soldier in a hospital tent is certainly destined for death and will fill a coffin. Indeed we have stoves in the hospital tents—obtained only recently and with much trouble —only they are not sufficient to warm the inside of the tents and, in cold weather, the heat flowing from them softens the ground, so that the vapors rising up only aggravate the condition of patients. All requests to create hospitals in Rolla or to transport the sick to St. Louis have been refused; yes, even our requisitions for boards to build a hospital in the camp have been rejected. Finally, General Sigel succeeded in acquiring 1,500 feet of boards for our two hospital tents, so that floors could be installed. Our men however are still lying on the ground because the sparse straw becomes putrid in a few days with wet weather.

Editor, I ask you to raise your voice, let the people know, how the bravest, the best are being slaughtered uselessly. Have these lines translated into English if possible, so you can bring it to the attention of the entire population. You know me and that I never exaggerate.

            Only one person can rescue the army! Put General Sigel in command of it.

                                                                                                           

                                             F. [author unknown but possibly Bernhard Fürst]


Illinois Staats-Zeitung

January 25, 1862

(Translated by Joseph R. Reinhart)

[44th Illinois]

 

 

Terrible Illness in the 44th Ill. Regtiment; Criminal Negligence by the Government regarding Union Soldiers; Small Pox Illness; State of Illness in Oesterhaus’s Brigade.

 

Camp by Rolla [Mo.]

Jan. 19 [1862]

 

 

The purpose of today’s letter is to inform you that we have not departed from here because the state of health of our regiment makes a movement impossible. I am nearly convinced that at this moment not 200 men of our 900 are fit to march. In our camp 162 men lay sick, over 90 men are in outlying hospitals, and the rest creep around our camp here like ghosts. Several days ago the division’s doctor, Dr. Betz, ordered that around 50 men should be discharged as soon as possible because most of them suffer from galloping consumption. Unfortunately smallpox has also broken out in the regiment quite virulently, and it has the appearance that the entire regiment approaches its total dissolution within a short time. One can still talk of luck, when skin and bones are snatched away from the all-devouring graves.

The regiment’s camp is eerie at the moment. We hear only mournful music or the last salute given by rifles to the deceased lying in his grave. When one merely glances around, another horrible scene confronts him. First, there are walking corpses, then the filled up death [hospital] tents, and further the tents made from boards [coffins] some distance from the camp. You ask the half-dead sick persons to go to the hospital; however, they say: “That is just as good as immediately laying in a coffin and being buried.” And sadly! Sadly, only too many of the men are right. Imagine a hospital where twenty men are laying on damp straw on the ground in a tent, exposed to all influences of the wet earth; two or three men are often dead half the night before their neighbors notice it. Is that not a magnificent image of the respect and esteem for American warriors, as well as the recognition of their human worth?

            What help is it that our estimable General Sigel and our German commander clamored for good hospitals?  However, no money may be spent for them. It can only be spent for suppliers and swindlers. Our poor soldiers have enough when they can die on rotten straw! The country is dumb enough that it sends more and more of such stupid guys, and besides that, they are only needed to be able to report large numbers in the newspapers. How will it end if another course for the care of human lives is not embarked on soon?

The mud in our camp is now so deep that even with my high boots I can barely make my way through it. Now think about the men in the tents without flooring, on foul straw, often in water a couple of inches deep. Of course there are stoves in the tents, but through the effluvium created by the wet earth and the straw, the Miasma adhering to the nearby graves is only stronger.

 

My company that held up steadfastly up until a few days ago infuses anxiety and fear in me now, because I only have 20 men fit for service. I now fear for my own person because I see that the strongest nature cannot escape the Grim Reaper here. General Osterhaus, who had departed from here with 2,000 men, has already had to send back about 1/3, and all arrived critically ill.  You could now rightly sing here, “There is nothing dumber on earth, than to be a soldier in America.”

 

[unsigned]


Illinois Staats-Zeitung

February 1, 1862

(Translated by Joseph R. Reinhart)

[44th Illinois]

 

Camp by Rolla [Mo.]

Jan. 28 [1862]

Editor Illinois Staats-Zeitung

 

A Mississippi newspaper of the 26th of this month just came to me. In it I found a recommendation from the division’s surgeon, Dr. Beck from here, to improve the organization of the military medical service. Because I served previously as a noncommissioned officer in the Second Bavarian Military Company for 4 years, I now permit myself to present for your widely circulated paper a small picture of the assembly, equipment and the service of these troops, as they now exists in almost all European states, presupposing this useful, but still pretty new establishment should be somewhat unknown to your readers. I limit my description strictly to the Bavarian Military Company, however, those of the other European armies are similar with only a few exceptions.

At this time, Bavaria has three such companies for its army (some 100,000 men), which in the field has 1 main hospital and 6 field hospitals attached. Each of these companies contains: 1 captain, 2 1st lieutenants, 1 battalion doctor, 1 quartermaster, 1 sergeant, and one bugler 1st class, all mounted; Then 4 sergeants, 12 corporals and 4 buglers second class; 16 soldiers, 44 soldiers first and 124 second class; In addition, for the larger exercises and the march into the field, the company is also assigned; 5 military surgeons, 1 corporal, 1 trumpeter, 5 cavalrymen, 1 sergeant and 42 men from the army train with 87 horses. Each man of the company is equipped with a short, light rifle, a cartridge box and bag of bandages. The last is made of hairy calf skin and contains 5 two-ply and 2 five-ply bandages, 1 belt, 1 arm sling, various compresses, 1 pound of lint,  adhesive strips, pins, tourniquet, 1 knife, 1 scissors, 1 spoon, 1 glass bottle with a leather cover for wine or vinegar, 1 sponge, 1 paperboard splint for broken bones. Further, the company had 16 patient ambulances and 5 wagons for property. The first are built in the form of omnibuses, sitting on leaf springs and with seats for 12 men.  Each wagon has 2 field beds equipped with rollers at their feet and serve for the comfort of the severely wounded. The interior of the car is designed so that they can be folded up, leaving space for 2 heavy wounded on their beds, but still seats for 6 lightly wounded men. Furthermore, a provision is made in the interior of the carriage on the ceiling, where hanging devices can be attached for broken limbs; which greatly diminishes the pain produced by vibration.

On the outside of these carts there are leather straps for securing the knapsacks of the wounded, as well as on each carriage an oval barrel with cocks, holding some 8-10 gallons for water. The upper platforms of the carriages are furnished with a high wire mesh and with leather straps, and are intended to receive the field beds belonging to the cart, as well as the rifles of the wounded. As a convenient provision for boarding is provided on the side, as well as on the rear part of the car, the wounded can be brought in with ease and without any discomfort from a particular pain.

One of the 5 requisition wagons is used for the officers’ baggage, the cash register, the stock of clothing, munitions, etc. The other 4 are uniformly equipped as follows: 1 large flag with a separable shaft, the name of the surgical center, together with a red signal lantern, which comes to the flagpole at night, torches to search for wounded at night, 10 dismountable stretchers with carrying straps, 15 wool blankets together with straw torches, 10 field stools and 10 carrying straps, further, tin cans for browned meal, caraway seeds, alt, fat, tea coffee, chocolate, bullion cubes, etc. Further a large basket containing: bottles with wine, vinegar, brandy, supplies of lint, compresses, tourniquets, adhesive tape, pins, trusses, food peelers and spoons. There are likewise arm–and leg splints, hand- and foot boards, the latter for bruising, a few crutches, and a complete set of instruments in each wagon.

The service of the company consists of the training of the crew in all the subjects necessary for their profession, such as practice with weapons, instruction in the construction and segments of the body, position of the internal parts thereof, circulation of the blood, placement of dressings, nursing care, assistance in surgical operations and simple means of recognizing apparent death.The doctor instructs the company about everything that relates to the treatment of the sick and wounded. However, in addition to tactical training the officers teach packaging of material, setting up of dressing stations, as well as searching for and transporting wounded. After obtaining the necessary knowledge and skills,, the team is utilized by the orderly service in the country’s various military hospitals In the field, the service of these troops consists of the establishment of facilities, the investigation of the wounded, the establishment of emergency facilities, the restoration of the sick, the assistance of the wounded with food, the transport of the wounded to the field hospitals and to the general hospitals. Since all these services require a certain amount of intelligence, as well as a strong and sturdy body, the selection of the people for the Sanitary companies is given significant consideration by the recruitment commissioners.

The companies are placed into 4 independent trains and they have the same crew and same material, which allows them to operate together or separately. An army corps now moves onto the battlefields, then the Sanitary company follows at some distance and the commander searches for a place offering security, water, wood, stray or hay. At times the location will be determined by general staff officers. After arriving the crew will divide into 4-man teams, each of them with a stretcher with load-bearing straps, and will then the detachment will proceed in the direction assigned to them. In the meantime the rest of the team establishes the dressing station and puts up the signal flag, fill the straw torches, take the field pots out of the wagon, obtain water, make fires, and bring the bandages and other devices to the site. A competent man will be assigned to command each ambulance, which will follow the patrol at some distance. The patrols had to go up right behind the battle line, get the wounded and apply the necessary bandages and bring them to the wagons.  If a man's injury is such that he can walk, a member of the patrol takes his knapsack and leads him to the carriage, while the remaining three men remain in their places. If the wounded man has to be carried, the remaining two remain back with the stretcher.

            In the meantime, the cavalry orderlies advise the commander of the course of the battle and indicate to him places where an increase in the patrols are necessary.

            If the army makes a forward or backward movement, the commander, by means of the transport wagons, causes the wounded men to be taken away from the station, to dismantle the station, to package the material, which is very rapid. Patrols remain in their places and, when the dressing station is established anew, the orderly will inform them about this. 

               After the end of a battle it is still the duty of the medical companies to take care of the dead, and to prevent the burial of the nearly dead.

               In addition, a special subordinate officer is employed at the dressing-station to record the name and division of each wounded person, to mark his baggage, and to list to which hospital he was taken.

               In the hurry with which I had written this letter, I had forgotten a great many useful things. So, for example, in each equipment wagon, is a case containing carpentry and metal working tools. Further, carried under the wagon are cookware and earthenware, pickaxes, and shovels. 

It is a striking fact that while in the European States the soldier is a mere soldier, the governments are not afraid to bear the cost of these expedient institutions in the interest of the attitude of their people, while the great and rich American nation does nothing of this sort; and yet here are the sons of the country, who voluntarily fight for the maintenance of freedom and the Constitution. It is in no other thing that our government is so stingy with its money, why just here?

One ought to believe that there are enough American generals in the army who must know about the usefulness of the ambulance service in the last European war; Why do these gentlemen not raise their voices?

It is a striking fact that while in the European States the soldier is a mere soldier, the governments are not afraid to bear the cost of these expedient institutions in the interest of the attitude of their people, while the great and rich American nation in this direction does nothing; And yet here are the sons of the country, who voluntarily abide; To fight for the maintenance of freedom and constitution. It is our government in no other point with its money so stingy, why just here, where it is about the maintenance of human life. If the bullets distinguished the between the American and the foreign-born, the negligence of this branch would be explained to me.

After the end of the last Italian war a meritorious old Austro-Hungarian military doctor made a summary, which indicated that of the wounded of the last Austrian wars, 31 per cent more were healed than in the war at the beginning of the century.  He wrote this resulted from the first aid provided by the medical departments. If, in his enthusiasm for the new institute, he went a little too far by ignoring the progress of surgical science in the last 30 to 40 years, it cannot be denied that a great part of this favorable outcome is attributable to the medical companies.

How much the troops in this area still need everything you may assume because we took the whole train under Fremont to Springfield, where certainly a fight was expected, without, for example, the 44th (Knobelsdorff's) Illinois Regiment and some other commands being in possession of a single surgical instrument, unless you consider the private pocketknife of our Dr. Weitze. Anyone who also sees the impractically constructed ambulances in which a healthy person can only get on and off with difficulty, you must be wondering how such immense sums could be spent.

At last we will march again to the southwestern part of Missouri. This time, hopefully, not to turn back again within eyesight of the enemy. On the contrary, we hope to sweep them away this time.

The state of of the regiment’s health has improved somewhat in the good weather, and in the last 4-5 days no more cases of foal have occurred. The hospital tents are also in better order by having floors and sufficient ovens.

 

Respectfully yours

 

L. Lippert

Captain in the 44th Ill. Regt.

 

 

 

Illinois Staats-Zeitung

March 6, 1862

[44th Illinois]

 

 

From the 44th Illinois Infantry Regiment, Colonel Knobelsdorff.

 

Sugar Creek, Benton County, Arkansas

February 13 [1862]

 

We reached Springfield on February 13. Our cavalry had a small skirmish with a detachment of friendly cavalry at Walnut Forest about 8 miles northeast of Springfield. Fortunately, no one was wounded. By the time we reached Springfield the enemy, under General Price, perhaps 9,000 to 11,000-men strong, had left there days before, and was withdrawing to Arkansas. We have followed the enemy incessantly with our 15,000-man army, but he did not halt and we had to stop the pursuit on February 18 to give our fatigued troops at least a day’s rest. Our army followed the rebels with great haste beyond Cassville and Keenville [?] up to here, about 10 miles from the Missouri border, only because they had a lead of a full day and retreated day and night without rest and nourishment, so our infantry could not keep up. Our cavalry was on enemy’s heels constantly, but after a long way the road becomes a defile, which extends from Cassville to Arkansas, and the cavalry was unable to do anything more to the enemy. Despite that they were pursued to here; indeed, the cavalry attacked several times with the intention to stall him until the infantry could arrive, only in vain, because we rested during the night, which permitted them to get away.

            Here by Sugar Creek on the afternoon of the seventeenth, a rather warm clash took place between the enemy artillery and infantry and a detachment of our cavalry; 10 men on our side were killed and approximately 15 were wounded. Our cavalry intended to storm two guns of the enemy controlling the road and whom were supported by infantry. The road however, which goes around mountains, did not allow the deployment of cavalry, so our men were repulsed. As I hear, the enemy is strongly fortified 18 miles from here behind Bentonville; further, he is supposed to have been reinforced by 5,000 men. Our army is capable of beating Price’s under any circumstances. If only he could be brought to a halt.

I do not know what is happening now. Today it is said that we are supposed to advance tomorrow to pursue the enemy farther. That would be an unwise measure, because our army has been without rations since Springfield, and only lives on meat, which to be sure is in abundance. We have had no coffee since February 13, and have no bread, only some meal seized from time to time from farmhouses and mills on the road, from which our men prepare all kinds of baked goods. If Curtis decides to advise General Sigel to advance farther without provisions, our men will have to suffer. Had Curtis advised General Sigel to move (which I hear did not happen) then our division, with the necessary cavalry, would have surrounded the enemy by Springfield and cut off his retreat to Arkansas on the road by Wilson Creek, so that we would have completely caught him in our trap. However, Curtis wants to have the honor alone, and has let General Sigel stand completely on the side.  In order to deny Sigel an opportunity to excel, the march was organized so that Jeff[erson C.] Davis’s division, with which Curtis travels, cut off General Sigel’s troops on the route to Springfield by Walnut Forest [?], and thus left Sigel’s command behind them. Both commanders quickly rushed to Springfield; however, the bird had flown out the backdoor, which they had not thought about, and now they hurried after the long since departed bird. They stormed behind Price's army hoping he will readily give up. Sigel’s two divisions, under the command of Osterhaus and Asboth, of course followed with all possible speed behind Davis’s division until the troops of General Davis became exhausted, and so at last made a halt, and the whole force under Curtis is now here in camp.

 

[author unknown]

 

Illinois Staats-Zeitung

May 8, 1862

(Translated by Joseph R. Reinhart)

 

[44th Illinois]

 

Camp Salem, Fulton Co., Ark.

May 1, 1862

 

To the Illinois Staats-Zeitung,

 

I have not communicated with you for some time because nothing important has happened. Since then General Sigel has left us due to illness. The army generally lacks managerial spirit, however we hope that he returns to us soon, and will take over the top command. General Curtis did not understand how to utilize the victory at Pea Ridge. Instead of pursuing and destroying the enemy in small detachments he allowed the shattered enemy to disburse in all directions toward Fort Smith in Arkansas. General Curtis remained on the battlefield at Pea Ridge drunk with victory, and even let General Sigel’s command, which pursued the enemy to Keeteville [Keytesville, Mo.], to return. Cavalry was sent out to pursue the enemy only on the day after the battle, but the enemy was long over the mountains and, in fact, safely took his guns, without any cover, and also took a large part of his baggage. If General Curtis had pursued him on a timely basis, we would have made him fight and taken his guns and baggage.

            General Price has assembled his shattered army again at Pocahontas, Ark., and is supposed to now march to reinforce the Southern army in Tennessee. Since the battle of Pea Ridge we have been inactive here and without purpose in Missouri and given the enemy the opportunity to peacefully assemble in the northeastern corner of Arkansas and in such a way not only hold our army under Curtis in check, but also to trouble our army in Tennessee. General Price is an excellent strategist and if he had more energy and persistence on the battlefield he would have destroyed our small army long ago. As I gather from newspapers, Curtis’s inactivity after the battle of Pea Ridge has been excused because of shortages of munitions and provisions.

         This is really not an excuse but rather proof of the greatest negligence. Since the Army under Curtis departed, our army has received only small quantities of provisions; he believed an army of 15,000 men in Arkansas could be supplied with provisions out of Rolla with 300 wagons. Naturally this was impossible, so each regiment was forced to forage. You could imagine that the region where our army camped was completely cleaned out, as if locusts had ravaged it. The previous fall in the campaign to Springfield, under General Sigel’s command, there was also a lack of provisions initially, but he knew immediately what steps to take and in a short time the army was excellently supplied, without sucking the land dry and devastating it. General Sigel went so far in his discipline that the soldiers were not allowed to burn fence rails, which happens now on a large scale and in a reckless manner. Of course, the farmers in the region in which our army now passes have had their land stripped and it is unfit to till this year.

            A General in Europe who does not remember to bring a stock of ammunition at the right time or to build munitions depots in his rear, would be regarded as a traitor; here it is considered but an excuse, if the enemy was not pursued! From this short letter you can fully conclude what sort of trust experienced officers have in our high command, and that we fervently wish to see General Sigel at the head of our army.

The Battle at Pittsburg [Landing] should finally have opened the eyes of the Americans and demonstrated to them the unfitness of newly-baked generals. Competent officers like Colonels Osterhaus, Knoblesdorff, Hassendeubel, who have proved their worth on the battlefield, cannot advance because the President and the Senate prefer to promote politicians to generals. Politician from Iowa and Colonel Carr, who both understand nothing of military affairs and have shown their incompetence on the battlefield at Pea Ridge, have been advanced to brigadier general, while Colonel Osterhaus, who commanded a division under Sigel in the same battle and broke the center of the enemy with his troops and decided the battle was not even worth mentioning.

That is depressing for us German officers and if this is not soon changed, then the best officers will soon put their swords back into their scabbards and leave the field to the humbug generals. They are deliberately trying to force every competent German officer out of the army. Thus, General Curtis had Colonel Knobelsdorff— who is well-known and liked because of his energy and competence—put under arrest a short time ago, because some American officers in his regiment preferred some trumped-up charges against him. If these perfidious charges, dictated out of hate, had gone through the hands of Col. Knobelsdorff's superiors, Col. Osterhaus and General Sigel, then they would have been rejected immediately as false and malicious; but to General Curtis this was a desired opportunity to exhibit his hatred of German officers. He could not act this way toward General Sigel, so he picked Colonel Knobelsdorff as his victim. The latter is not a man to trifle with. He has rejected all charges against him in a court martial and has been honorably acquitted of them. Knobelsdorff has commanded the Second Brigade in Osterhaus’s division again for two weeks, while Colonel Hassendeubel commands the First [Brigade].

General Curtis went so far in his pursuit of the prosecution against Colonel Knobelsdorff that he denied him payment of his back pay. That is completely against all regulations. You could imagine that such sordid prosecutions against German officers has made our lives completely miserable and our only hope remains, of course, that General Sigel soon takes over command of the army.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            F.

Illinois Staats-Zeitung

May 27, 1862

(Translated by Joseph R. Reinhart)

[44th Illinois]

 

 

 

Letter from an Officer of Knobelsdorff’s Regiment

 

Mr. Schnöckel, at this time a first lieutenant in Knobelsdorff ‘s Regiment and who is recovering from a serious illness, returning to the scene of the war with Mr. Theodor Frese from here, writes the following to us.

 

On board the Steamboat Minehaha

May 24, 1862

To the Editor of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung:

 

Just at this moment, 3 o’clock in the afternoon, the above-named boat is leaving from Cape Girardeau to take its cargo via Cario [Ill.] to Pittsburg Landing, and because the time becomes appallingly long I will use some of it to converse with you. We, that is, Dr. Weize, Frese and I left St. Louis yesterday in order to find our regiment, the 44th Illinois, in Cape Girardeau. We arrived early, 8 o’clock this morning, but the regiment had already departed at 5 o’clock for Pittsburg Landing, and I could only talk to a few latecomers from it [three illegible words]. During my absence there are supposed to have been big changes in the regiment brought about by the Colonel, which however are not of general interest. After his brilliant acquittal, he has resumed command again.

Our men have recently endured great stress and are supposed to have left here yesterday very exhausted. We hope to be at Pittsburg Landing by Monday evening and must wait for what will happen to us. In any case we will find the 44th Regiment because the boat on which we are traveling is very fast, although it is very heavily loaded with men, horses and mules. Horses just arrived from St. Louis and are very pretty, and should be assigned to cavalry regiments, which stand in need of them.

            The space on this boat is too restricted for me to be able to share anymore with you. Excuse me therefore and be assured that I will send news to you as soon as I am there and have time.

            Since my absence I have been promoted from 2nd to 1st lieutenant.

 

                        Respectfully yours,

                    Wm. Schnödel,

                           1st Lieutenant, 44th Regiment. Ill. Vol.

 

 

The writer is shown on the muster rolls as William Schnoeckel, Company K. He was a corn merchant born in Germany. He mustered in on July 1, 1861 at Chicago and resigned April 1, 1863. He mustered in at age 45.

Illinois Staats-Zeitung

September 15, 1862

 

(Translated by Joseph R. Reinhart)

[44th Illinois]

 

 

 

Camp of the 44th Reg. Ill. Vol.

Rienzi, Miss., Sept 3, 1862

 

Because our revered friend and, up until now commander, Karl [Charles] Knobelsdorff stands at the point of permanent separation from his war comrades, we therefore want to express our sincere regret for the circumstances causing his departure, also we gave him the assurance that we will retain an indelible memory the invaluable services he has provided to our cause, which he made so valiantly and in which he untiringly used his strength in the midst of the severest strain, privations and danger.

            Because he has left us, the warmest wishes accompany him, not only from his fellow officers, but also of the officers of other regiments; the same feeling also permeates the rank and file. He showed himself as a experienced and tested officer in the hour of danger, as a competent and unpartisan administrator in months full of terrible shortages, as a warm and cheerful friend and a self-denying patriot through and through.

Our innermost wish is that his future path in life leads to fewer trials and tribulations and more illustrious victories.

 

[author unknown]

 

 

Illinois Staats-Zeitung

September 16, 1862

 

[44th Illinois]

 

Covington, Ky.

Sept. 12[?] [1862]

 

To the editorial staff of the Illinois Staats[-]Zeitung.

 

The 44th Illinois Volunteer Regiment received marching orders [several illegible letters]  M. evening. The next morning we marched from our camp (Rienzi, Mississippi) to Corinth, from where we at 7 the next morning were transported on the railroad to Columbus, from there on the steamer to Cairo, from there over the Illinois Central Railroad and the Ohio-Mississippi Railroad to Cincinnati, Ohio. We reached Cincinnati on the night of the 10th; on the 11th we immediately crossed over the Ohio [River] bridge to Covington, Ky. to our camp. The 80th Ill. Regt., whose Colonel Greusel, commands our regiment as brigade commander, was close to us; immediately afterward the 2nd and 15th Missouri came to us.

            The purpose of this letter is to make several remarks to you about this trip.

            O how agreeable it is for a soldier from the army in Missouri to come out of enemy country after one year into a land of friends. What an affectionate reception we received. What jubilation along the road! Among all the other cities, Seymour and Vincennes in Indiana particularly stood out. All possible refreshments, coffee, cakes and pastries and fruit were served to the soldiers in large quantities.   

When these well-meaning mothers heard there would be even more regiments of old soldiers, nothing but Pea Ridgers, they did not remain there. The daughters, who couldn't tear themselves away from the sight of the genuine but sunburned and bearded Missouri warriors, were urgently ordered to go home. There was cooking and baking to do for those still to come. “You fought with Sigel at Pea Ridge?” was the question asked a hundred times. A large supper was prepared for us in Cincinnati but we arrived too late to participate. This trip made a deep impression on intelligent and warmhearted soldiers. If you compare these good intentions, this noble devotion of the people and the greatest sacrifice of the soldiers with the victories achieved up to now, it is really sad [we have not completely defeated the enemy].

            Our regiment has no colonel now. Our commander, earlier a captain in our regiment, wears no officer’s insignia and no one really knows whether he is a general or a corporal.

I must close; I just heard that marching orders arrived.

   

                                                                                    Yours,

    R.

[author unknown]

Illinois Staats-Zeitung

September 29, 1862

                                                                                                        [44th Illinois]

Editorial

Colonel Knobelsdorff

 

The release of Colonel Knobelsdorff of the 44th Illinois Regiment, not only from his command but also from the service of the United States, in our view and after careful consideration of the negotiations of the court-martial, which condemned him, manifests such a dirty work of malice and confirms what has happened in the course of this whole war. We need only a single document to literally substantiate our claim, and as soon as it has arrived, as soon as that is, we will convince the readers that next to the injustice inflicted on Gen. Turchin, that the indignity done to Colonel Knobelsdorff must appear intolerable to every right-minded man.

Meanwhile, we request those who so far have only seen ex parte reports about the case to trust that Col. Knobelsdorff is a competent and skillful commander and an honest, loyal Gentleman.   

He was victimized by the drunkenness and brutality an officer* whose upbringing led him to hate everyone who did not graduate from West Point.

 

* General Granger.

 

                               

                                                                          [The editorial staff]

 

Illinois Staats-Zeitung

October 7, 1863

 

[44th Illinois]

 

Fortifications south of Chattanooga

Sept. 27 [1863]


My dear Colonel:

 

Although my time is much in demand, I believe it is my duty to send some lines to you but I cannot furnish very many details, also consider it unnecessary, because more capable writers than I have delivered reports to the Illinois Staats-Zeitung. On September 1 we left our camp at Stevenson, Ala., and, after endless marching here and there and with indescribable stress and deprivation, met the Rebels around noon on the nineteenth. The deployment of the 20th Army Corps under McCook was carried out in the greatest hurry, and the enemy immediately attacked the 3rd Brigade of the 3rd Division (General Sheridan) The brigade under Colonel Bradley fought with great bravery; it managed to completely repulse the enemy who made a bayonet attack. The losses of the enemy here were enormous; the losses of the brave brigade [Bradley’s] were considerable. Colonel Bradley was carried from the battlefield severely wounded and masses of officers and men lay on the field; his brigade has reaped the greatest praise, because after the enemy had pushed back the right wing of Thomas’s corps, it blocked the way, defeated them, and brought quiet to the battlefield. We held the battlefield during the night

Unfortunately, the next day, Sept. 20, the result would not be as fortunate for us. First, late in the morning we heard the beginning of the battle on the left of our army; it neared the center more and more, until about 11 o’clock, our corps was attacked. Our objective was to defeat the enemy. Because we had strong confidence in Rosecrans and his subordinate generals we waited with great eagerness for the signal to advance; however, at that same moment, Gen. Davis’s division retreated in disarray toward the left wing of our brigade (2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, Col. Laibold[t]).

We were able to stop the enemy for about 5 minutes, but had to give ground to their enormous force. Colonel Laibold[t] and several subaltern officers managed to rally the largest part of the brigade and hold the enemy in check for a short time until the 1st Brigade of our division (Gen. Lytle) came up on our right flank to help . Things changed quickly, the enemy came in tremendous masses and we had to give way, however, held out so long that our artillery [two illegible words]. It was at this point where 488 combatants from the 2nd Brig., 3rd Div., died heroically in 15 minutes, were crippled or taken prisoner; however, we have heard very little about the prisoners of the Rebels.

Our men fought heroically like the veterans they were, however, it is generally believed that the troops did not receive orders early enough, so they could meet the enemy from a greater distance. I am still not able to say how many men the 1st Brigade lost. I know however that it was during this affair when the brave and generally loved Gen. Lytle was killed. A bullet went through his head and he hit the ground. Gen. Rosencrans [Rosecrans] and his staff deserve the greatest praise for their cool headedness. He was in the greatest shower of bullets near us, called out encouraging words to and each officer of his staff, drew his revolver, and fired at the enemy who was perhaps 20 yards away at this moment. It is a wonder to me that Rosecrans was not wounded.

            In the evening we learned that it had been Lee’s [Longstreet’s] two divisions that attacked us. However the enemy had suffered so much that he did nut pursue us long during our retreat. The day’s battle was over. Because our right wing and a part of Thomas’s corps were cut off, we had to establish our line again a good stretch back; we accomplished that about midnight. Little of significance occurred on September 21, except that the enemy tried to dislodge Crittenden’s corps but was unsuccessful.

            On the morning of the twenty-second, we moved to Chattanooga after daybreak, where we entrenched ourselves, because our army is too weak to take the offensive. Our losses in the battle amounted to at least 10,000 men. The losses in the battle of Chickamauga have left a grievous mark on out troops; especially on the old Pea Ridge regiments, which have never had to retreat before. I saw officers and soldiers weeping during the retreat, but each man possesses the strong awareness that we will yet drive these southern cavaliers out of the mountains.

The losses of your old 44th Regiment are very heavy again. Of approximately 230 men who went into the battle we lost 95 enlisted men and 6 officers; the 73rd Illinois, 2nd and 15th Missouri lost even more; Battery G, 1st Mo. Artillery lost 6 men; our whole brigade numbered 1,220 men; I have good grounds to believe that the severely wounded missing men remain back on the battlefield.  The names of the dead and wounded officers follow:

Lt. Col. John Russell, wounded; 2nd Lt. Davis, Co. G, dead; Lt. Cooley, Co. H, wounded; 1st Lt. Silas Merchant, Co. G, wounded; 2nd Lt. Ed. Blind, Co. E, missing; Act.[ing] Lt. Bildhoff, Co. K, missing; 2nd Lt. Allen, Co. F, lightly wounded, now with the regiment.

 

                                      [author unknown]

Illinois Staats-Zeitung

                                                                         October 21, 1862

 

[44th Illinois]

                                                                                                                                                                                    

                                                        

[no date or place]

 

To the Editor of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung:

 

In your esteemed newspaper of the 17th of this month I found a letter sent in by Otto Mutschlechner in reference to the efforts of Mr. I. N. Arnold to help elevate deserving German officers to higher positions, as well as revealing, the disparaging remarks of the editorial department of "Chicago Telegraph" regarding Mr. Arnold’s merits. I am convinced that most of our politicians strive to popularize themselves with their constituents, and that they favor particular persons who serve them or from which they expect service, but I absolutely must take exception [with respect] to Mr. Arnold in relation to his activities in military relationships.

I know from personal convictions that Mr. Arnold, as representative of this congressional district, has ardently advocated the advancement of Gen. Sigel to brigadier general as well to major general, and that he largely is to be thanked for his efforts that these promotions finally took place; in spite of all the merits of Gen. Sigel, the additional support would not have been needed if Sigel were a native-born [Anglo-] American.

It is undeniable as well that Mr. Arnold pushed through the promotion of Colonel Osterhaus to brigadier general and he deserves full recognition for this. Although Sigel and Osterhaus have fully earned their promotions through their shining acts on the battlefields of Missouri and Arkansas, one also knows well enough how difficult it is for German officers to gain recognition and promotions, and it is just as honorable and praiseworthy for Mr. Arnold who used his influence and cannot expect favors in return from these excellent German officers who belong to the army in Missouri. Mr. Arnold has appeared to be a friend of energetic warfare and for this reason has generally advocated the employment and promotion of more military-learned German officers, while other representatives show an unjust hatred against each efficient German officer, and help to advance to general, all incompetent American politicians and favorites to the large disadvantage of the military service.

As a further piece of evidence of Mr. Arnold’s impartiality, I must cite that he alone is due the credit for achieving the acceptance by the President of the United States of two regiments [24th and 44th Ill. reg.] I organized. Mr. Arnold saw at that time that the rebellion could be not be overwhelmed with the insignificant force the President had ordered raised, and therefore incessantly encouraged the organization of additional independent bodies of troops. Had Mr. Arnold not granted me his fullest assistance, as Germans, both my regiments would not have been accepted into the service. In my opinion Mr. Arnold deserves much credit for this because he demanded vigorous and efficient warfare from the outset and he specifically pushed for justice for experienced German officers.  If he expected due recognition for this, there is no injustice; to the contrary, he should receive it in the fullest measure, because where else would we find another American representative who is so sincerely committed to the Germans.

Sincerely,

                                                               C. Knobelsdorff

Illinois Staats-Zeitung

(a German American newspaper)

November 1, 1862

(Translated by Joseph R. Reinhart)

 

(44th Illinois)

 

Colonel Knobelsdorff has provided us a letter from one of the officers of his former regiment [44th Illinois]. The letter follows.

Camp at Lebanon, Ky.,

October 26 1862

My dear colonel:

 

I don’t need to assure you that we were happy to receive some news from you. With the letter a ray of hope appeared, even if a weak one, that we will see you here with us again.

You probably did not suspect that your old 44th was fighting at the Battle of Perryville at the moment when you wrote your letter (Oct. 8). In the center where your regiment stood, the enemy was repulsed twice with large casualties on each side. At the beginning of the battle the 2nd Missouri lost 74 men right away, the 44th Ill. 14 men, the 36th Ill. in the afternoon 80 men, and so forth.1 The total losses on our side on this day were nearly 3,000 men and two batteries from the left wing. Your old Hecker regiment fought well but is terribly cut up. The enemy’s losses have to be twice ours because we have captured at least 3,300 wounded Rebels.

            It is noteworthy that we did not pursue the enemy at all on the next day, but let them withdraw leisurely, and only after three days we advanced quite cautiously to Lancaster, from where we then fell back to Lebanon in the double-quick, because Morgan’s band had captured our provision train (65 wagons). Is this not a nice region? Our dear Buell pursued his brother-in-law Bragg steadily: but enough of this humbug.

We belong to the 11th Division commanded by General Sheridan and to the 35th Brigade commanded by Lt. Col. Leibold, Army of the Ohio; Our brigade is one of the best. It consists of the 2nd and 15th Missouri and the 44th and 73rd Illinois, while Colonel Greusel has three green regiments in his brigade. Sheridan is well liked by everyone. He has behaved well and is one of the best generals.

Still nothing has improved in the command and the feeding of the regiment. Since our departure from Louisville (Oct. 1) we have lived on crackers, coffee and bacon. We have received nothing else. We live like a bird under the sky, because we have no tents and we cannot take our knapsacks with us; only a blanket is allowed. You can easily understand that under such circumstances illnesses do not stay away, and the army has at least 15 sick on average in company; however, that is not important. What should be done for the welfare of the country? We should march quickly and lightly equipped—sort of a flying army—in order to save Kentucky and completely destroy the enemy. How much that succeeds, you can judge, but it’s not dependent on the soldiers but on the commanding general Buell.

 

[author unknown]

 

  1. Translator’s note. Losses for the battle were: 44th Ill., 1 KIA, 11 wounded.; 73rd Ill. 2 KIA, 33 wounded.; 2nd Mo., 18 KIA, 51 wounded., 1 missing; 15th Mo., 1 KIA, 7 wounded. Ken Hafendorfer, Perryville: Battle

1863


Illinois Staats-Zeitung

October 7, 1863

 

Fortifications south of Chattanooga

Sept. 27 [1863]

 

My dear Colonel:

 

Although my time is much in demand, I believe it is my duty to send some lines to you but I cannot furnish very many details, also consider it unnecessary, because more capable writers than I have delivered reports to the Illinois Staats-Zeitung. On September 1 we left our camp at Stevenson, Ala., and after endless marching here and there and with indescribable stress and deprivation met the Rebels around noon on the nineteenth. The deployment of the 20th Army Corps under McCook was carried out in the greatest hurry, and the 3rd Brigade of the 3rd Division (General Sheridan) was immediately attacked by the enemy. The brigade under Colonel Bradley fought with great bravery; it managed to completely repulse the enemy who made a bayonet attack. The losses of the enemy here were enormous; the losses of the brave brigade [Bradley’s] were considerable. Colonel Bradley was carried from the battlefield severely wounded and masses of officers and men lay on the field; his brigade has reaped the greatest praise, because after the enemy had pushed back the right wing of Thomas’s corps, it blocked the way, defeated them, and brought silence to the battlefield. We held the battlefield during the night

Unfortunately, the next day, Sept. 20, the result would not be as fortunate for us. First, late in the morning we heard the beginning of the battle on the left of our army; it neared the center more and more, until about 11 o’clock, our corps was attacked. Our objective was to defeat the enemy. Because we had strong confidence in Rosecrans and his subordinate generals we waited with great eagerness for the signal to advance; however, at that same moment, Gen. Davis’s division retreated in disarray toward the left wing of our brigade (2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, Col. Laibold[t]).

We were able to stop the enemy for about 5 minutes, but had to give ground to their enormous force. Colonel Laibold[t] and several subaltern officers managed to rally the largest part of the brigade and hold the enemy in check for a short time until the 1st Brigade of our division (Gen. Lytle) came up on our right flank to help. Things changed quickly, the enemy came in tremendous masses and we had to give way, however, held out so long that our artillery [two illegible words]. It was at this point where 488 combatants from the 2nd Brig., 3rd Div., died heroically in 15 minutes, were crippled or taken prisoner; however, we have heard very little about the prisoners of the Rebels.

Our men fought heroically like the veterans they were, however, it is generally believed that the troops were not ordered early enough, so they could meet the enemy from a greater distance. I am still not able to say how many men the 1st Brigade lost, know however, that it was during this affair  when the brave and generally loved Gen. Lytle was killed. A bullet went through his head and he hit the ground. Gen. Rosencrans and his staff deserve the greatest praise for their cool headedness. He was in the greatest shower of bullets near us, called out encouraging words to and each officer of his staff, drew his revolver, and fired at the enemy who was perhaps 20 yards away at this moment. It is a wonder to me that Rosecrans was not wounded.

            In the evening we learned that it had been Lee’s two divisions that attacked us. However the enemy had suffered so much that he did nut pursue us long during our retreat. The day’s battle was over. Because our right wing and a part of Thomas’s corps were cut off, we had to establish our line again a good stretch back that we accomplished about midnight. Little of significance occurred on September 21, except that the enemy made a visit to dislodge Crittenden’s corps but was unsuccessful.

            On the morning of the twenty-second, we moved to Chattanooga after daybreak, where we entrenched ourselves, because our army is too weak to take the offensive. Our losses in the battle amounted to at least 10,000 men. The losses in the battle of Chickamauga have left a grievous mark on out troops; especially on the old Pea Ridge regiments, which have never had to retreat before. I saw officers and soldiers weeping during the retreat, each man however knows

The losses of your old 44th Regiment are very heavy again. Of approximately 230 men who went into the battle we lost 95 enlisted men and 6 officers; the 73rd Illinois, 2nd and 15th Missouri lost even more; Battery G, 1st Mo. Artillery lost 6 men; our whole brigade numbered 1,220 men; I have good grounds to believe that the severely wounded missing men remain back on the battlefield.  The names of the dead and wounded officers follow:

Lt. Col. John Russell wounded; 2nd Lt. Davis, Co. G, dead; Lt. Cohlebn , Co. H. wounded; 1st Lt. Silas Merchant, Co. G, wounded; 2nd Lt. ed. Blind, Co. E, missing; Act. Lt. Bildhoff, Co. K, missing; 2nd Lt. Allen, Co. F, lightly wounded, now with the regiment.

 

 


1864


Illinois Staats–Zeitung

May 26, 1864

 Field hospital on the Battlefield of Resaca

May 15, 1864

To the editor of the Ill. Staats-Zeitung

 

Although I am suffering severe pain at this moment and the cannons thunder and boom, I am still required to report the following to the public.

            First is to remark how bravely our soldiers acted yesterday the 14th. The enemy was behind breastworks. We stood in the fire without protection; however, no soldier left his post unless he was killed or carried away wounded. I saw our comrades who were out of ammunition got ammunition out of the cartridge boxes of fallen soldiers and fired again on the enemy. 

            The 44th Ill. Inf. Regiment to which I belong was among others exposed to the heaviest fire but no soldier gave way until the order to move to a different position. After I was wounded, I was not noticed by my company, so I hobbled back about 150 steps and therefore was carried to the rear by an Indianan and by a soldier of the 15th [Mo.] Reg.  All soldiers were like brothers and endured their fate patiently and even wounded men helped each other as much as they could. What I also wanted to highlight is the prompt, gentle and, in general, the good treatment of the wounded on the part of the concerned authorities. Nothing is forgotten and omitted that helped to facilitate the comfort of the wounded and sick. I write these lines first to thank the concerned authorities and those officials and officers, and second to console the relatives and friends of the wounded in the Northern States.  I therefore would like to request that the Illinois Staats-Zeitung place these few lines in their newspaper. I write these lines, as already stated, while I am lay wounded.

            I first entered the army on March 30, 1864 in Chicago. On April 18, 1864, I left Chicago with the 44th Ill. Inf. Regiment and have already taken part in the fighting from May 9 until May 12 at Buzzard Roost and the battle by Resaca, and I am confident that the Rebel army can be clobbered again and driven again a good stretch closer to the Gulf of Mexico.

            May 14 and 15, 1864, were pernicious for the Rebels. Several thousand were taken prisoner and guns and war materiel captured. The Rebel army will not soon forget the lesson learned at Resaca. And Joe Johnson can take comfort that he will share the fate of Bragg at Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge. A small insert is included in this letter that is more humorous than important. It is indeed true and said raccoon, which fell down from a tree nearly onto me, scared me more than the enemy’s cannon in the battle by Resaca on the 14th. If it is worth your trouble you might include it in your paper. (We will publish the poem [doggerel] on Sunday. The editor Ill. Stztg.)

 

There may be many writing and punctuation errors in this letter, however I write to you in pain and in a hurry. It will be better the next time.

 

With respect and greeting

Respectfully yours,

Bernhard Fürst

Co. E, 44th Ill. Reg.,

Army of the Cumberland.

1864

Illinois Staats-Zeitung

June 13 1864

 

[44th Illinois]


Battlefield in front of Dallas, Ga.

June 4, 1864

Since our departure from Chicago our old regiment has again suffered large casualties in the different battles from Cleveland up to here. Our regiment has lost 70 men up until now, including Capt. Dickermann of Co. F and Adj. Weyrich who were wounded. The latter is severely shot in his side. Here are the names of the wounded of Companies E, K and A

            Co. G—Bernhard Fürst, Philipp Wittmer, Wm. Kuhlmann.

            Co. K—Corporal George Deuermaher, Christ. Jacobs, both severely wounded.

            Co. A— Henry Grenatie, dead; Jacob Metzler, Henry Weers, Gottlieb Gmelich.     Benedict Waldvogel, Louis Torns, wounded.

 

Today is already the seventh day and no end is expected. Capt. Freysleben arrived healthy and again has command of Co. A.

            There are still 30 miles from here to Atlanta and hard times still lie ahead. The troops are in the best spirits and strongly confident of a true victory soon.

 

[author unknown]

x

44th Regiment Infantry


Organized at Chicago, Ill., and mustered in September 13, 1861. Moved to St. Louis, Mo., September 14-15, thence to Jefferson City, Mo., September 22-25. Attached to Sigel's Division, Dept. of Missouri, and Dept. of Missouri, to January, 1862. 4th Brigade, Army of Southwest Missouri, to February, 1862. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, Army of Southwest Missouri, to June, 1862. 1st Brigade, 5th Division, Army of Mississippi, to September, 1862. 35th Brigade, 11th Division, Army of the Ohio, to October, 1862. 35th Brigade, 11th Division, 3rd Army Corps, Army of the Ohio, to Noyes-Division, 3rd Army Corps, Army of the Ohio, to November, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, Right Wing 14th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to January, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 20th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to October, 1863. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 4th Army Corps, to August, 1865. Department of Texas to September, 1865.

SERVICE.--Fremont's advance on Springfield, Mo., October 13-November 8, 1861. March to Rolla November 8-19, and duty there until February, 1862. Curtis' advance on Springfield, Mo., February 2-13. Pursuit of Price into Arkansas February 13-29. Battles of Pea Ridge, Bentonville, Leetown and Elkhorn Tavern March 6-8. March to Batesville, Ark., April 5-May 3. Moved to Cape Girardeau, Mo., thence to Pittsburg Landing May 11-26. Siege of Corinth, Miss., May 29-30. Pursuit to Booneville May 31-June 12. At Rienzi, Miss., until August 26. Moved to Cincinnati, Ohio, August 26-September 1, thence to Louisville, Ky., September 17-19, Pursuit of Bragg into Kentucky October 1-16. Battle of Perryville, Ky., October 8. March to Nashville, Tenn., October 16-November 7, and duty there until December 26. Reconnaissance to Milk Creek November 27. Advance on Murfreesboro December 26-30. Battle of Stone's River December 30-31, 1862, and January 1-3, 1863. At Murfreesboro until June. Expedition toward Columbia March 4-14. Middle Tennessee (or Tullahoma) Campaign June 24-July 7. Fairfield June 27. Occupation of Middle Tennessee until August 16. Passage of the Cumberland Mountains and Tennessee River and Chickamauga (Ga.) Campaign August 16-September 22. Battle of Chickamauga September 19-20. Siege of Chattanooga, Tenn., September 24-November 23. Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign November 23-27. Orchard Knob November 23-24. Mission Ridge November 25. Pursuit to Graysville November 26-27. March to relief of Knoxville, Tenn., November 28-December 8. Campaign in East Tennessee December, 1863, to February, 1864. March to Chattanooga, thence to Cleveland, Tenn., and duty there until May. Veterans on furlough February 18 to April 14. Atlanta (Ga.) Campaign May 1 to September 8. Demonstrations against Rocky Faced Ridge May 8-11. Buzzard's Roost Gap May 8-9. Demonstration on Dalton May 9-13. Battle of Resaca May 14-15. Adairsville May 17. Near Kingston May 18-19. Near Cassville May 19. Advance on Dallas May 22-25. Operations on line of Pumpkin Vine Creek and battles about Dallas, New Hope Church and Allatoona Hills May 25-June 5. Operations about Marietta and against Kenesaw Mountain June 10-July 2. Pine Hill June 11-14. Lost Mountain June 15-17. Assault on Kenesaw June 27. Ruff's Station, Smyrna Camp Ground, July 4. Chattahoochie River July 5-17. Buckhead, Nancy's Creek, July 18. Peach Tree Creek, July 19-20. Siege of Atlanta July 22-August 25. Flank movement on Jonesboro August 25-30. Battle of Jonesboro August 31-September 1. Lovejoy Station September 2-6. Operations against Hood and Forrest in North Georgia and North Alabama September 29-November 3. Nashville (Tenn.) Campaign November-December. Columbia, Duck River, November 24-27. Spring Hill November 29. Battle of Franklin November 30. Battle of Nashville December 15-16. Pursuit of Hood to the Tennessee River December 17-28. March to Huntsville, Ala., and duty there until March, 1865. Operations In East Tennessee March 28-April 19. Moved to Nashville, Tenn., and duty there until June. Moved to New Orleans, La., June 15-22, thence to Port Lavaca, Texas, July 16-23. Camp on La Placido River until September 25.Mustered out September 25, 1865. 
Regiment lost during service 6 Officers and 129 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 1 Officer and 156 Enlisted men by disease. Total 292.


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